Refugees and relief

Refugee Week starts next Monday and here at Friends House we are having a series of events including a small exhibition in the Library on Monday open to all (

The exhibition will consist of banners giving an overview of Quaker work to help refugees, mainly in the mid-twentieth century, culminating in the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to American and British Quakers in 1947. We will also have some archive and contemporary published material on display.

Why do Quakers help refugees?

At the root of the Quaker faith is a belief that there is something of God in everyone, that each life is sacred. Quakers are guided by a set of values known as ‘testimonies’: peace, equality, truth and simplicity. They try to live out these values in the world and to be guided by their faith into action.

The peace testimony is a core expression of Quaker faith and, from the early days of the movement, has led Quakers to reject war and military service, and to work with others on a wide range of peace and relief work, not just in the UK but around the world. A key principle has always been that help and support are offered in a non-political and non-partisan way, also reflecting the testimony of equality.

Quakers have been led by their testimonies to help victims during times of crisis. This has included victims of war such as those whose homes were destroyed, victims of persecution such as those living under violent regimes, and people fleeing economic devastation, disease and famine.

Historical examples

Although the term ‘refugee’ is relatively modern, and subject to different definitions, there are early examples of Quakers helping refugees. From the 1824 report of a committee established to respond to an application for relief of refugees in Greece, to the establishment of a Friends War Victims Relief Committee (FWVRC) in 1870 to aid victims of the Franco-Prussian War, there were several periods of crisis in the 19th century which caused displacement of people and drew support from Quakers.

However, the 20th century brought refugee crises on an unprecedented scale. There were many opportunities for Quakers to assist and offer relief.

World War I

World War I saw the destruction of swathes of homes in Belgium and northern France, leaving thousands homeless. Friends Emergency & War Victims Relief Committee (FEWVRC) and the Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU) assisted these refugees, both with short term aid, and in rebuilding housing and reconstructing industry and farming.

Revolution and the ensuing civil war in Russia caused many to flee southwards, while the breakdown of empire in Europe and territorial carve-up at the end of the war caused further population chaos. This mass movement of people caused the widespread outbreak of contagious disease. Again the FEWVRC was able to offer medical aid, food, and reconstruction.

The aftermath of war left many central European countries, especially the defeated powers, suffering hunger and famine. British Quakers, mainly under the American Friends Service Committee’s management, undertook mass feeding programmes in Germany and Austria.

People whose homes have been destroyed near the Front in World War I

People whose homes have been destroyed near the Front in World War I (Library reference: LSF FEWVRC France pics 8_3_6 refugee family depart Oise)

Displaced people in Russian camp after World War I

Displaced people in Russian camp after World War I (Library reference: FEWVRC-PICS-RS-AL1-1)

Spanish Civil War

In the 1930s Europe suffered another crisis with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

Quakers were able to assist people fleeing the war, both in areas of Spain and neighbouring France, and by assisting refugees who came to Britain.

You can find out more about Quakers and the Spanish Civil War by visiting Haverford College’s digital project Testimonies in Art & Action which includes material from our collections.

Spanish children fleeing the war

Spanish children fleeing the war (Library reference: LSF FSC photos_Spain refugees crossing over to France c1939)

World War II

As well as carrying out post-World War I relief work in Germany,  Quakers established international centres in Germany and Austria during the interwar period. This meant that Quakers in Britain had people on the ground relaying information about the political situation as it unfolded after Nazis took power in 1933. They became acutely aware of the danger for certain groups in society. From 1933, Quakers assisted people to leave Nazi Europe and this continued through the war.

After the war millions of people were displaced across Europe and the world. Quakers were involved in various aspects of relief for these people through Friends Relief Service (FRS) and Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU). You can read more about FRS and FAU in World War II on Quakers in the World.

LSF 066.34 FCRA 1_21 Caring for the child refugees

Image from a pamphlet about caring for child refugees to Britain (Library reference: 066.34 FCRA 1_21 Caring for the child refugees)

In addition to offering assistance and aid to refugees in times of crisis, Quakers have also lobbied for changes in national and international policy towards those forced to migrate, and continue to do so today.

We invite anyone interested in Quakers’ work for refugees and relief to come along on Monday, from 11am-3pm, and view the exhibition.

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A 17th century Recording Clerk’s library: Richard Richardson’s books

As part of the ongoing work to improve access to the Library’s printed books and pamphlets we have now added the Richardson Collection to our online catalogue. Unlike the other early books catalogued as part of the project, these books were not included on our old card catalogue, so they were in effect hidden. From their well-thumbed appearance though, they had heavy use in the days of their former owner, Richard Richardson (1623?-1689), the Quakers’ second Recording Clerk.

Richard Richardson, Quaker

Richard Richardson had a background in teaching. As a schoolmaster he was tried at Chelmsford and imprisoned from 1670-1672 for teaching without licence and refusing to take the oath of allegiance. In 1674 he was appointed as master of a school for the children of poor Friends at Devonshire House, Bishopsgate. He assumed the role of Recording Clerk of the Society of Friends in 1681. His learning was valued by Friends: George Fox consulted him in 1679 in preparation for his tract on marriage True marriage declared or Severall testimonyes from the reccord of Scriptvre concerning the true marriages and such as are not according to the truth. Among other duties, he was responsible for procuring two copies of every book written by Friends and one copy of every book written against them, as minuted by the Second Day’s Morning Meeting in 1673 – the foundation of this Library’s remarkable and comprehensive collection of Quaker publications.

The Richardson Collection

The books in the Richardson Collection, however, were not Quaker writings, but part of the working library of an early Quaker Recording Clerk. As cataloguing progressed, a picture emerged of the importance for early Friends of this small scholarly collection of Old and New Testament editions, church history, post-Reformation theology, civil and ecclesiastical law, and dictionaries.

We found that while a dozen of the books (published between 1538 and 1679) were printed in London, the remaining 16 were published on the continent at Paris, Louvain, Lyons, Basle, Geneva, Zurich, Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Amsterdam and Rome. They indicate a breadth of study, and the range of resources that Friends needed in order to defend their beliefs and practice against the attacks of their opponents, during an era of fierce theological controversy. Richardson was certainly well educated, reading Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, German and Dutch, and even Arabic and Ethiopic.

Richardson Collection 5. Lexicon Æthiopico-Latinum

Richardson Collection 5. Ludolf, Hiob, Lexicon Æthiopico-Latinum (1661)


Contemporary catalogues and lists of Richardson’s books

Cataloguing the collection revealed some puzzles about Richardson’s original library. Though he left his books to Friends, we do not know the full extent of his original library. And one book at least could not have come from Richardson (Sir Walter Rawleigh’s ghost (1652), inscribed by a later owner in 1702).

Piecing together the details of thirty titles listed on a handwritten 17th century document entitled Catalogus Riccardi Riccardson (in “A catalogue of Friends books bound up in severall volums” , archive reference CAT 1, shelf reference: SR1/113/2/6 Box 2) shelf reference: SR1/113/2/6 Box 2) produced little correlation with the surviving books.


Catalogus Riccardi Riccardson

Catalogus Riccardi Riccardson, in “A catalogue of Friends books bound up in severall volums” (archive reference CAT 1, shelf reference: SR1/113/2/6 Box 2)


Three of the Catalogus books are held elsewhere in our collections (including the Treatise on oaths, (1675), co-authored by Richardson with William Penn and others), but a close examination of those copies uncovered no conclusive evidence of Richardson’s ownership. Titles from the Catalogus not held here include works by classical Latin writers, and continental reformers such as Erasmus (1466?-1536), Johannes Brenz (1499-1570), Urbanus Rhegius (1489-1541), Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575) and Bartholomäus Keckermann  promoter of the colony of Virginia.

Between the leaves of one of the surviving Richardson books we came across a manuscript headed “14.6mo.88. A note of ye books sent by G. Watt”. George Watt died in the following month: George Fox wrote a testimony, or spiritual obituary, for him (A testimony concerning our dear Friend and brother George Watt, London, the 6th of the 9th moneth, 1688). This manuscript listed three book titles, one of which was the volume in which the manuscript was found (the writings of Flemish monk and mystic Louis de Blois – D. Ludovici Blosii abbatis Lætiensis nostri secvli laudatissimi Opera (1622), Richardson Collection no. 18). George Watt’s name is inscribed on its title page. The other two, by John Selden, were no longer with the Richardson Collection. To our delight we identified one of them – Selden’s De synedriis & præfecturis juridicis veterum Ebræorum libri tres (Amsterdam, 1679) – as a copy held in the Library’s general collection. It was clearly inscribed with the name of the earlier owner, George Watt, but not identified as part of the Richardson Collection.


All these books are now on our online catalogue, and we have reported the details of holdings to major bibliographic databases such as English Short-Title Catalogue, Short-Title Catalogue Netherlands, and the Verzeichnis der Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Once again they are available for use, and their existence widely recorded.

We are grateful for the help given by Peter Salinger of University College London in identifying and cataloguing the collection’s two Hebrew Torahs, printed in Geneva in 1617-1618 and Amsterdam in 1630.

We welcome enquiries about the books in the Richardson Collection. For further information, or a list of the books catalogued, please contact us.



Skidmore, Gil, ‘Richardson, Richard (1622/3–1689)’, Oxford dictionary of national biography, (2004)

Dictionary of Quaker biography (unpublished typescript, Library of the Society of Friends, London)

Penney, Norman, ‘Our Recording Clerks: no. 2 Richard Richardson’, in Journal of the Friends Historical Society, vol. 1 (1903), p. 62-8

Littleboy, Anna, ‘Devonshire House Reference Library’ part 2, in Journal of the Friends Historical Society, vol. 18 (1921), p.66-80 (p. 66-67 refer to Richardson)

Cadbury, Henry J., ‘Hebraica and the Jews’, in Howard H. Brinton, Children of light: in honor of Rufus M. Jones (1938), p.137-8

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Quakers say it loud: the poster collection of the Library of the Society of Friends

The Library’s latest reading room display focuses on our poster collection. The posters are a historic visual record of Quaker values. These values – or ‘testimonies’ – of peace, equality, simplicity and sustainability, and truth and integrity are the founding principles of Quakerism.

Quakers live out their faith, acting according to these testimonies in their everyday lives. Quakers are perhaps best known for their peace testimony, which leads them to ‘witness’ against all war and violence.

Quakers have a history of publishing, which dates back to the days of the Society’s founder, George Fox. Early Quakers called themselves the ‘First Publishers of Truth’ and spread the faith by preaching and writing.

In 1656, while in prison, George Fox wrote: “Let all nations hear the word by sound or writing. Spare no place, spare not tongue nor pen, but be obedient to the Lord God and go through the world and be valiant for the Truth upon earth.” (Quaker faith & practice 19:32).

In 1660 George Fox and fellow Quakers presented a petition to Charles II declaring who Quakers were and the principles by which they live. The petition was also published as a pamphlet and is often known as the first peace testimony. The pamphlet was widely distributed to make the public aware that Quakers were nonviolent Christians who posed no threat.


Since the late 19th century, posters have been a popular way of advertising products or making announcements. To capture the public’s attention, posters have a few key words to convey a message and are illustrated with a striking image or design.

The Library holds the archives of the central organisation of Quakers in Britain. The committees administered by Quakers in Britain have produced many posters, pamphlets and cards. Committees and departments have evolved over the years but all of this material encompasses a wide range of interpretation of what these testimonies mean to a modern, ever-changing society.

Quaker public awareness campaigns have focused on world events, social values and spiritual fulfilment.


Quakers’ ardent campaigning for peace, at both national and local levels, led to the establishment of the Friends Peace Committee in 1888. The Peace Committee used its influence to promote peace on Christian grounds. Members attended peace conferences, wrote to magazines, newspapers, faith bodies and MPs about peace and arbitration, and distributed peace literature to the public.

Today Quaker Peace & Social Witness (QPSW) takes action on peace and social justice. It supports Quaker witness in local communities and schools in Britain and overseas – it works for peace in Palestine and Israel and in East Africa. The Quaker United Nations Office(QUNO) is based in Geneva and New York and facilitates positive social change on a range of issues including peacebuilding and disarmament.


Quakers believe everyone is equal. This means working to change the systems that cause injustice and hinder true community. It also means working with people who suffer injustice, such as prisoners and asylum-seekers. This testimony has led Quakers to campaign on issues like human rights, housing justice, the Living Wage and same-sex marriage.


Simplicity and sustainability

Quakers are concerned about the excesses and unfairness of our consumer society and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Quakers try to live simply and to find space for the things that really matter: the people around us, the natural world, our experience of God:

“We all need to take personal responsibility to make whatever changes we are called to. At the same time, we need to pledge ourselves to corporate action. The environmental crisis is enmeshed with global economic injustice and we must face our responsibility as one of the nations which has unfairly benefited at others’ expense, to redress inequalities…”

From minute 36, Yearly Meeting 2011

Truth and integrity

Guided by integrity, Quakers try to live the truth of word, power and spirit of God. This testimony raises awareness of making the world a better place through faith by working together as a community as well as individually.

The posters of the Friends Temperance Union (1877–1990) encouraged abstinence from drinking and gambling, both of which were closely linked to social deprivation and poverty. The F.T.U. campaigned to help curb these vices, and Quakers toured the country, giving lectures illustrated with lantern slides to publicise the harm drinking and gambling caused to individuals and families. F.T.U.’s successor, Quaker Action on Alcohol and Drugs, no longer takes an abstinence only approach to alcohol, but continues to work within the Quaker testimony of abstinence and moderation, seeking to address gambling and the use and misuse of all substances, legal, illegal and prescribed, within a framework of Quaker values.

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Quaker women: resources for women’s history in the Library of the Society of Friends

For Women’s History Month this March, we offer a broad overview of some of the great women’s history resources the Library has to offer. Whether you’re interested in the lives and thought of particular Quaker women, in the history of the Society of Friends and Quakerism, or in women’s history more generally, we hope this blogpost will give some pointers to fruitful sources for research and reading.

Archives of women’s meetings

Quaker women gathered together regularly in London from the late seventeenth century, though an official Yearly Meeting of Women Friends was only formally established in 1784 (having first been proposed in 1753). It was finally laid down in 1907. The records of the Women’s Yearly Meeting include minute books from 1759 to 1907, and epistles 1753-1906.

Womens YM minutes 1772

Yearly Meeting of Women Friends. Minute book 1759-1785

Meetings around the country also had their own separate women’s meetings. London and Middlesex women’s meetings records are here in the Library, including those of the Women’s Two Weeks Meeting and Box Meeting. Surviving records of other local women’s meetings are deposited locally along with other monthly meeting archives. For more information about specific local women’s meeting records and their whereabouts, contact us.

Womens Two Weeks Meeting Minute book 1779-1783

Womens Two Weeks Meeting. Minute book 1779-1783


Women’s published writings

17th century Quaker publishing was remarkable both for its abundance and for the unusual number of women authors, at a time when women’s public writing was as uncommon (and as deprecated) as women’s preaching. It’s not surprising that many researchers have found the Library a rich resource for early modern women’s writing and publishing.

Womens tracts

Some key reference works and anthologies for research into 17th and 18th century Quaker women’s published writing include:

Quaker women have of course gone on writing on a wide range of topics and in a variety of forms ever since. Not only does the Library aim to collect all Quaker publications, but it also holds a representative range of books by Quakers on unrelated topics, including works by women authors who wrote for a living, such as botanical books for children by Priscilla Wakefield (1751-1832), or the poems and fiction of the novelist Amelia Opie (1769-1853).

So if you’re looking for the writings of a particular Quaker woman, or a particular title, your first stop should be the Library’s online catalogue. We’ve produced some catalogue search tips, to help focus your search – for instance by genre and date – and make good use of the results.

Women’s diaries, letters and other personal papers

Women’s stories have often gone untold through lack of documentation. Any surviving personal papers – diaries, correspondence, note books – can be invaluable sources for learning more about women’s public and private lives. You will find many examples of these, from the 17th to the 20th century, in the Library’s collections, including travel journals and spiritual diaries, which, by their nature, are more likely to have been preserved for posterity.

The most iconic are probably the diaries of Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845), prison reformer, whose presence in recent years on the five pound note gives an indication of her continuing fame. The recently conserved diaries (MS Vol S 255-271) give a fascinating insight into the inner life of a Quaker minister and social reformer, documenting her private moral and spiritual struggles as well as her philanthropic activities.

Here is a selection of some other women’s diaries to whet your interest (click on the links for full catalogue descriptions of these manuscripts, or contact us for a longer list).

Eighteenth century

Nineteenth century

Twentieth century

Secondary sources

Besides published biographies of individual women or families, the Library holds historical studies of Quaker women of different periods, written from various standpoints. Mabel Brailsford’s Quaker women 1650-1690 published over a century ago was the first substantial study in the field, taking the biographical narrative approach which continued to be favoured in popular works on the subject, often for a mainly Quaker audience. More recent historical writing has been influenced by the increasing academic professionalisation of history, but also by the growth of social and economic history, women’s history and gender studies, and the study of material culture (particularly in the domestic sphere). These developments, along with the impetus to tell untold stories and publish anthologies of source material on less well documented areas, have led to a proliferation of valuable secondary sources for anyone interested in studying Quaker women. Here’s a short selection of some of these important and useful works.


Seventeenth century

Eighteenth century

Nineteenth century

Twentieth century

 And much more…

This short blog post has merely scratched the surface of what’s available for the study of women’s history in the Library. We have omitted general biographical sources, such as the Dictionary of Quaker biography. And we haven’t even mentioned images and artefacts (photographs, cartes de visite, art works by and about women Friends, costume, museum objects), despite their importance for the study of women’s everyday lives. It’s clearly impossible to produce a single conspectus of all relevant Library sources, given the wide compass of possible topics relating to women’s history, and the range of potential users of the collections. Thankfully, the online catalogue will take you much further – and of course we are always ready to welcome new readers and answer enquiries about the collections.

Above all, we hope you will all join us in celebrating Quaker women’s lives and history, whether you’re a seasoned researcher or just dipping your toe in for the first time.

Quaker meeting attributed to Heemskerk F070

The Quaker Meeting, oil painting attributed to Egbert van Heemskerk, late 17th century (Library reference: F070)

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War and social order

Reimagining a True Social Order is a new AHRC funded website exploring the historic background and contemporary significance of the Eight Foundations of a True Social Order, first agreed by London Yearly Meeting in 1918. Inspired by the richness of the new resource (produced by academics at Leeds, in collaboration with Quakers in Britain, Woodbrooke and others), this blogpost aims to highlight some of the Library material which relate to the origins and development of the Eight Foundations.


Display of material for Yearly Meeting 2016 special interest group on the 8 Foundations

The war of 1914–18 made Friends more vividly aware of the close connection between war and social order. Many progressive social thinkers at the time blamed the failings of capitalism for the descent into war, and saw the masses caught up in fighting for their countries as pawns in the games of empire led by politicians, royalty and wealthy businessmen.

Nine months after the outbreak of war, London Yearly Meeting was inspired by the words of the 18th century Quaker John Woolman:  May we look upon our treasures, the furniture of our houses, and our garments, and try whether the seeds of war have nourishment in these our possessions (A Word of remembrance and caution to the rich, republished by the Fabian Society in 1897).

British Friends established a War & Social Order Committee in 1915 to look into all issues surrounding social inequality and the social conditions that make war possible. The Committee presented their findings to Yearly Meeting in 1918, leading to the adoption of eight ‘Foundations of a true social order’, ideals still included in Quaker faith and practice today(

The War & Social Order Committee (WSOC) would later become the Industrial & Social Order Council (ISOC) which existed until 1962.

The most obvious starting place for anyone interested in finding out more, is the papers of these two committees.

For the War & Social Order Committee, 1915-1928, we hold the minutes of the main committee and the sub-committees, as well as conference minutes. For a full description of the records, go to our online catalogue entry:

For the Industrial & Social Order Council, 1928-1962, we hold similar records and also two scrapbooks of photographs and pamphlets. For a full description, go to our online catalogue entry:


‘Those much discussed Eight Points’, Industrial and Social Order Council scrapbook, 1955-1956′, Library reference ISOC/6/1

However for those wanting to dig even deeper, there are other collections which are worth a look.

Papers from committees and people which shed a light on their wartime activities are important for getting a feel for how the war was influencing Quakers and in many cases leading them to new and more radical positions.

WSOC member Hubert Peet was already a Socialist before war broke out (acting as editor of The Ploughshare, journal of the Socialist Quaker Society), but as secretary of the wartime Friends Service Committee, he would have had contact with a large variety of young men from diverse backgrounds which may have also shaped his political and social views. His 1916 correspondence forms part of the Service Committee records here on the catalogue:

Some of the members of the War & Social Order committee were absolutist conscientious objectors, and when reading the letters and diaries of COs in our collections you can see how this experience led them to mix with other conscientious objectors through the No-Conscription Fellowship, and while imprisoned alongside these men. Often other COs objected on political grounds, and held strong socialist views. To find out more about this read our earlier blogpost on COs in prison


Page from clandestine CO prison newspaper featuring cartoon with socialist and pacifist themes, page 24, Winchester Whisperer, Library reference: Vol S 77

We also hold a variety of publications and collections from other members of the committee ( which you can find by searching their names on our catalogue.

Notable collections include:

Maurice L. Rowntree papers (Library reference: TEMP MSS 480)

Rowntree had also served time in prison as a conscientious objector during World War I and his letters and notebooks written in prison show the huge impact this had on him especially with regards to prison conditions and rehabilitation. He went on to publish several works on war and social order, and this collection includes extensive research notes for his writing. The collection also includes research notes written on areas of industry – it seems Rowntree went ‘undercover’ and obtained jobs for periods in labouring work in order to get a better understanding of working conditions.  He also documents adult education projects and clubs for the unemployed in working class areas.

Joan Mary Fry papers                            (Library references: TEMP MSS 66; TEMP MSS 909 etc.)

Joan Mary Fry was a wealthy Quaker, daughter of a Judge, and sister of Roger Fry, the art critic, and Bloomsbury Group member.

She had served as a prison chaplain in World War One, before joining the relief effort in Germany after the war. Among other tasks on the War & Social Order Committee, she headed up the allotment sub-committee, promoting allotment work for the poor.

She published articles and books on issues to do with pacifism and social order, particularly focussing on unemployment, but also on religious and pastoral topics. Find out more about her publications by searching our online catalogue (see also our recent blogpost on Fry and others).

John Turner Walton Newbold papers                                       (Library reference TEMP MSS 225)

Walton Newbold was a journalist and politician, who became the first Communist MP in Britain. He was much influenced by his Irish Quaker father and espoused Quaker beliefs, although in later life he was drawn to Catholicism.

He was a pacifist and campaigned for the No-Conscription Fellowship through World War I although was ruled out of having to contest conscription on medical grounds.

His politics were complex and he moved from the Independent Labour Party to the radical Left, joining the new Communist Party of Great Britain in 1921. After a period of intense representation on domestic and international issues, which led to a suspension from parliament in 1923, he resigned from the Party in 1924 and renewed his allegiance to Labour.

We hold a collection of letters of Newbold to contemporaries such as Hubert Peet.

These collections provide further historical insight into the thinking behind the Eight Foundations, adding to the rich resources on the new Reimagining a True Social Order website.

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Good cheer!

What’s going to be in your Christmas stocking? Something good, we hope! For our final blogpost of 2016 we want to celebrate some of the “gifts” you’ve shared  over the past twelve months. There have been some heartening acts of generosity – both regular and surprising. We have many reasons to be thankful!

Every fortnight a dedicated group of NADFAS volunteers gather in the Library reading room to de-staple and re-sew our modern pamphlets a Herculean task they’ve been working on for over six years. Over the autumn we’ve also had the help of a student conservator, who’s been treating some more challenging items. Through this painstaking and unglamorous work a great many rare late 19th and 20th century pamphlets are being protected from the damaging effects of rust on paper.

A small team of other volunteers offer their skill and time regularly too. Between them, they carry out basic paper repairs in-house, check large collections of donated material, and provide invaluable support to the retrospective cataloguing project. Thank you, volunteers, for your time, good will and constancy!

NADFAS team at work

Without a paid ministry, Quaker meetings run on the voluntary service of their members, who may undertake a range of roles. One of these is the role of “meeting librarian” (meetings are encouraged to maintain libraries for the use of Friends and attenders, as an aid to the life of the meeting and outreach). Earlier this year Quaker Life Network formed a new “Quaker Meeting Librarians Cluster” (inspired by an earlier discussion group set up and run for over a decade by Nic Wright, former librarian at Bolton Meeting), intended as a forum for sharing experience, discussing books and swapping tips.

Not long after the cluster was established, a reader came to us looking for a loan copy of The Communion of life, Joan Mary Fry’s 1910 Swarthmore lecture. As a shot in the dark, we emailed the cluster. Suddenly, and quite unexpectedly, there were messages from meeting librarians all over the country generously offering to track down and lend the book from their own collections. The reader was delighted, and so were we. And a bit awed. Meeting librarians are amazing: you clearly have a passion for sharing!

A catalogue of the books, belonging to the Friends of Leeds Particular Meeting (Leeds: Printed by J. Binns, 1794)


We’ve blogged before about how much we and our other users owe to the generosity of researchers who share their own work with the Library. A large proportion of new accessions – scholarly historical works, biographies, articles, novels, local history and more are presented to the Library by their authors, and this year was no exception.  Topics included politics, theology, the role of women, radicalism, peace, voluntary service, and individual people and places, across four centuries, reflecting the broad compass of our collections. Here’s a random selection of some of the 2016 accessions:


To ensure the survival of our collections for the future, professional conservation treatment is sometimes needed, funded by our BeFriend a Book scheme. So we were delighted when the recent blogpost about our student conservator’s project prompted one reader to make a generous donation to the fund. Thanks to everyone who has donated, whether it’s a lot or a little, for making this work possible!

Among items conserved this year were 16 tract volumes – volumes of separately published works collected and bound up together (mainly 17th-18th century). Their significance as physical objects is enhanced by their associations with places and people, so any trace of former ownership (inscriptions, marginal notes, bookplates, etc.) is meticulously preserved. Here are tract volumes 294, 326 and 517, three of those conserved in 2016 with noteworthy provenance:

And those are just a few of the kindnesses we’ve witnessed in 2016. Thank you all, friends, whether you’ve shared your time, your money, your own research, or – not least – your good will.

Very warm wishes to users and friends of the Library for Christmas and the new year!

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Preserving pamphlets: our student conservator talks about her work in the Library

We’re lucky to have Beth Franklin, a student conservator, volunteering at the Library this autumn. She’s working on-site to conserve some of the Library’s nineteenth and twentieth century pamphlets. We asked Beth about the kind of work she’s doing here and what drew her to a career in conservation.


Carrying out tape removal In the studio at Camberwell

Carrying out tape removal In the studio at Camberwell

How did you come to volunteer at the Library of the Society of Friends?

Beth: I’m a second year student on the Conservation M.A. course (Books and Archival Materials pathway) at Camberwell College of Arts, University of the Arts London, finishing in 2017, and looking for every opportunity to practice my skills. My undergraduate degree was in Theology and Biblical Studies, so I was interested in Quakerism. When my mentor Ian Watson, a conservator at Lambeth Palace Library, suggested a placement here I jumped at it. After my two week placement last spring I offered to come back one day a week through the autumn.


What did you do here during your first two week placement in the spring?

Beth: I broke up books! I had to dis-bind a set of nineteenth century pamphlet volumes. Like all conservation work, it required a steady hand and great care, and it was actually useful for understanding the structure of bound volumes, complementing what I had learned during my course so far.


You’re volunteering at the Library throughout the autumn. What kind of work are you doing now?

Beth: I’m working on the pamphlet material that the Library’s NADFAS team of volunteers have identified as needing more extensive work than they can do. I spent a day working with Ian at Sussex Conservation Consortium’s studio, and he helped decide what treatments were appropriate for me to carry out on site in the Library at Friends House, one day a week. Most of my work is repairing paper tears, reattaching covers and removing damaging staples – ones that are hard to get at because they are covered by the pamphlet bindings.


Beth’s tool roll

Beth’s tool roll – portable essentials

How does this fit in with the M.A. course you’re taking at Camberwell?

Beth: It’s useful experience. It gives me the opportunity to practise what I’ve learned in a classroom environment in a real life library and archive setting.


How long does each pamphlet take to treat?

Beth: It all depends – how long is a piece of string? A simple pamphlet might take ten minutes for careful staple removal and sewing; applying paper hinges to covers using wheat starch paste is longer, with drying time about an hour. I make up the wheat starch paste each time I visit the Library – it goes off in a week and smells horrible! One pamphlet that took a lot of time to treat was published in 2006 (Grow up or blow up, by Charlotte Waterlow). It was a thick pamphlet – 60 pages – with staples all the way through. I had to remove the staples, sew the pages together using the existing staple holes and re-attach the cover with Japanese paper hinges. Taking out the staples led to some loss of spine tape, which needed to be remedied with careful toning.


Wheat starch paste, made up for each visit to the Library

Wheat starch paste, made up for each visit to the Library

What’s the most challenging item you’ve treated so far this term?

Beth: A 19th century pamphlet about a visit to Ireland by James Hack Tuke (Irish distress and its remedies. The land question. A visit to Donegal and Connaught in the spring of 1880, Box 77/19). This was a well-used pamphlet whose covers had fallen off. It had been sewn but the stitching had gone, and I had to re-stitch the sections and sew them onto two cords, on site, with only the basic equipment I had here. My mentor Ian advised that it was do-able, and I’m pretty pleased with the result, considering I didn’t have the use of a sewing frame. I made a new paper cover, with a Japanese paper spine and I also had to remove some sticky tape (the bane of conservators).


Could you tell us about some of the other conservation work you’ve been doing?

Beth: I worked for a month over the summer at Lambeth Place Library, repairing three leather bindings by re-attaching boards and making a new leather spine – my first opportunity to work with leather bindings in a real life library context.

At the moment I’m also volunteering at the V&A Museum once a week, in their Blythe House store, making book wraps – bespoke enclosures for leather bound books with “red rot”, designed to protect neighbouring volumes (and users!) from the red flaking dust that comes off the volumes.

Enclosure for a book with "red rot"

Enclosure for a book with “red rot”

What drew you to book and archive conservation in the first place?

As an undergraduate I used university special collections for my research at Liverpool Hope University, and I loved it. I ended up volunteering there, and did some basic repair work, which got my interest going. In the future I’d like to work as a conservator in a religious library or archive.


Finally, what’s your favourite piece of conservation equipment?

My Teflon bone folder. A bone folder is the conservator’s best friend! But I also love my Japanese bristle brush with bamboo handle, which is beautiful as well as useful.


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Friends as missionaries: contemporary reports, newsletters and magazines

This blog post introduces some of the periodicals that document British Quakers’ activity in the foreign mission field from the second half of the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Mission work was reported and promoted through annual reports, newsletters, and circulars. These are today an invaluable resource for anyone wanting to find out more about the work and the individuals involved.

As the nineteenth century progressed, Friends became more interested in evangelisation both at home and abroad. To this end in 1868 British Friends founded the Friends Foreign Mission Association (FFMA). The FFMA started out with 20 missionaries in 1868, reaching a peak by 1917 with 120 missionaries. By the time it became Friends Service Council in 1926, a total of 345 people had served with the organisation. Friends were active in China, India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Pemba and the Middle East. This work was not without its controversies with the Society of Friends, as described by John Ormerod Greenwood in Vines on the mountain (volume 2 of his Quaker encounters trilogy, York, 1977).

The Library holds annual reports of the FFMA for its entire history (1868-1926). These often feature photographs from the mission field (including mission buildings and British and local missionaries).

FFMA annual report 1881

FFMA annual report 1881, with map showing Hoshangabad District

Our missions (its magazine published 1894-1917) looked at the work of Friends Foreign Mission Association, featuring reports on specific mission projects and discussion about mission work. It is important to bear in mind, as Greenwood points out in Vines on the mountain, that the accounts in these periodicals deliberately downplayed the controversies, difficulties and hardships of missionary life.

Photograph of FFMA workers in Madagascar, from Our Missions, no. 144 (December 1905)

Photograph of FFMA workers in Madagascar, from Our missions, no. 144 (December 1905)

In 1911 foreign mission work began to be reported in another periodical, The Quaker at home and abroad.  In 1913 it became Workers at home and abroad, and absorbed FFMA’s Our missions in 1918. In 1922 Workers at home and abroad changed its title again to become The Wayfarer (which continues today as Quaker voices). The Wayfarer continued to cover the work of the FFMA and later Friends Service Council. FFMA’s work also got coverage in the Monthly record, which started out as a periodical covering “home and foreign missions, first-day schools, temperance and other other Christian work in the Society of Friends”, and later focused more extensively on adult schools, illustrating the overlap between “home” mission work and work abroad.

The Friends Foreign Mission Association and its successor, Friends Service Council, published a periodical for children called Here & there (1920-1942). Attractively illustrated with photographs, stories and activities, many of its articles were aimed at giving children an idea of daily life and customs in the countries where the FFMA worked.

Here and there (June 1922)

Here and there (June 1922)

Substantial projects run by or assisted by the Friends Foreign Mission Association, such as the Medical Mission at Antananarivo (Madagascar) and the Friends’ Syrian Mission run by Theophilus Waldmeier, often produced their own annual reports, which provide valuable insight into the work.

Friends Syrian Mission report 1895

Friends Syrian Mission report 1895

The Library also holds reports of projects independent of the FFMA, such as the Friends Mission in Brittany run by Charles D. Terrell , the Friends Armenian Mission in Istanbul established by Ann Mary Burgess, and Henry Gurney’s refuge in Tangiers.

The Missionary Helpers Union founded in 1882 helped support the work of the FFMA. Among publications relating to the Missionary Helpers Union are annual reports for 1884-1911. Some of its publications were aimed at children and young adults, and some focused on work in specific countries (China, Syria, and India).

As a result of the First World War, Friends became increasingly concerned with issues around international conciliation and peace building. The experience of Quaker organisations in providing relief during and after the war (and the formation of the American Friends Service Committee) also had an influence on this change in direction. The Council for International Service was formed in 1919 to support projects promoting international understanding, such as the Quaker International Centres that flourished in the interwar period. The Library holds annual reports of the Council for International Service between 1919 and 1927 as it worked alongside the FFMA. The two bodies merged to form the new Friends Service Council in 1927. Quaker world service, the new monthly published by Friends Service Council between 1927 and 1934, reflects this change in focus.

Quaker World Service (September 1932)

Quaker world service (September 1932) – title and contents illustrate the focus

Last, but not least, it is also worth noting that the Quaker weekly magazine The Friend also included current news of Friends’ foreign mission work, particularly letters from those engaged in the field.

Selected periodicals on Friends’ foreign missions

Friends Foreign Mission Association. Annual reports (London: Friends Foreign Mission Association, 1868-1926)

Monthly record (Birmingham: White & Pike, 1869-1891)

Missionary Helpers Union. Annual reports (Leominster: Orphans Printing Press, 1884-1911)

 Our missions: a magazine of foreign mission work carried on by Friends (London: West, Newman and Co., 1894-1917)

The Quaker at home and abroad (London: FFMA; Friends Home Mission & Extension Committee, 1911-1913)

Workers at home and abroad (London: FFMA, 1913-1921)

Council for International Service. Annual reports (London: Friends Council for International Service, 1919-1927)

The Wayfarer (London: Friends Home Mission & Extension Committee; Friends Service Council, 1922-1964)

Here & there (London: FFMA; Friends Service Council, 1920-1942)

Quaker world service (London: Friends Service Council, 1927-1934)

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Yearly Meeting 2016

Since the 17th century Friends have held an annual assembly known as Yearly Meeting. It’s changed a lot since its early days. Meetings regularly take place away from London, and what was once known as “London Yearly Meeting” has changed its name to “Britain Yearly Meeting”, a more accurate and inclusive expression of its identity. This year it will be taking place at Friends House, in London, 27-30 May, and the building will soon be buzzing with huge numbers of Quakers.

If you’re attending Yearly Meeting this year, whether for the first time or as a seasoned attender, we hope you’ll look in on the Library in whatever time you have spare between sessions, special interest meetings and lectures.

Detail of La Panne by Donald Wood

Detail of La Panne by Donald Wood (1916) (Library reference F183) – now on display on the first floor of Friends House

We’ve mounted two new displays on the topic of World War I conscientious objection, to mark the centenary of introduction of conscription in 1916. Besides the display in the reading room cabinet, there’s a further display on the first floor – bringing our collections out into other parts of the building with more passing traffic. Notice the newly conserved paintings by Donald Wood, showing Friends Ambulance Unit at La Panne, France, hanging alongside the display panels. And we’ll be putting more items from our collections out on display daily in the reading room, for all to see over the four days of Yearly Meeting, including documents and artefacts to illustrate the new Friends House garden timeline, and material relating to the “foundations of a social order” (see below).

Some of the special interest meetings over YM will be taking place in the Library reading room. Sing_in_the_spirit_9780948413155The Saturday lunch break will see a discussion on the Foundations of a true social order, facilitated by Rachel Muers and Rhiannon Grant:  they’ll begin with the story of the “foundations”, deliberated on by Friends a century ago, as the starting point for reflection on contemporary Quaker social testimony.  Reading Quaker faith & practice is the theme of a meeting in the Library during the Sunday mid-day interval – an opportunity to share what you may have learned or done as part of “Reading Quaker faith and practice” project, and get creative ideas for groups or personal reflection, as well as an update of the work of the Revision Preparation Group. But it’s the last group gathering in the reading room that promises to make the most noise – the Leaveners will be leading group singing in the Library from 7 to 8 on Sunday evening. We think this must be a first!

Annual lectures are a regular feature of the Yearly Meeting weekend. Sometimes their format is far from what you might expect – the Salter lecture this year is to be a performance of Red flag over Bermondsey: the Ada Salter story, written and performed by Lynne Morris (Friday, 12.30-14.00 in the Large Meeting House). Richard C. Allen’s Friends Historical Society Presidential Lecture on the origins of the London Peace Society, one of the earliest peace societies, sounds fascinating (“Providing a moral compass for British people: the work of Joseph Tregelles Price, Evan Rees and the Herald of Peace”, Sunday 17.30-18.30 in the Small Meeting House). And of course the Swarthmore lecture – this year’s lecture by Cécile Nyiramana and Esther Mombo is on Quaker peace building in East Africa. There are plans for it to be live-streamed (more information here).

It’s worth noting that Swarthmore lectures for the last 50 years are available for loan from the Library, as well as reference copies of the entire run; we can also supply spares of out of print lectures to meeting libraries or reading groups (contact us for more information). But a lecture’s live delivery is often especially enthralling, so it’s great to know that recordings of several Swarthmore lectures are available for free download from Woodbrooke.

Swarthmore lectures

Swarthmore lectures

Check out the Yearly Meeting timetable for full details of events. Yearly Meeting documents and practical information are also available online.

If you’re attending Yearly Meeting and planning to visit the Library to use the collections, there will be an opportunity for quiet research on Friday morning and Monday (we’ll be closed to the general public, but open for YM attenders). Do let us know in advance if you want to request material, so we can ensure it’s ready for your visit. Otherwise, please drop in at any time over the four days to look at the exhibits, browse the magazines and newsletters, read a book, attend a special interest group, or just say hello. We’re looking forward to seeing you all!

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Celebrating more collections information online

Every archive is faced with the problem of growing backlogs of material waiting to be added to their online catalogues and made accessible for users. It is a skilled and time consuming task to update old catalogue entries in paper format to digital ones with modern standards. We were lucky enough to be able to secure funding for a project to update catalogue entries for a large backlog of manuscript collections and add to our online catalogue.

Over the course of 15 months, our project cataloguer Jane Kirby, created top level catalogue entries for around 600 collections. This has opened up these collections to a wider public and we started noticing the impact straight away in the reading room – with collections being ordered up that had rarely been looked at by readers – and even some new discoveries for staff!

The project faced various hurdles: often older collections had scant accession paperwork and needed extra research into their provenance. Some of these mysteries remain unsolved….Other collections needed extensive repacking and cleaning, or had to be earmarked for professional conservation work. We chose to focus on top level entries only, with a basic overview of each collection, as we wanted to get as much of the backlog onto the online catalogue as possible. For larger collections we will need to do further work on expanding their catalogues so that people can find the records they need.

There are all sorts of collections within the manuscripts, including collections from organisations that were not centrally managed by the Yearly Meeting, but that are closely linked with Quakers, such as Friends Ambulance Unit, Friends Temperance Union, and Central Board of Conscientious Objectors.

There are also collections of personal papers of notable Quakers, many of whom carried out work under the auspices of the central organisation, or were closely linked with the Society and wished to leave their papers to the Library. These papers give a complementary personal insight and emotional resonance to the official archives, which tell the story of Quaker work often from a purely administrative perspective.

We have highlighted three interesting collections of personal papers that show the personalities of the people behind the political and social movements and issues interesting Friends in the 20th century.

Lucy Backhouse was an active Friend who sat on many committees, including Friends Service Council, Friends Committee for Refugees and Aliens, Armenia Committee as well as Meeting for Sufferings. Her obituary in The Friend, the weekly Quaker magazine, highlights that one of her strengths was her extensive letter writing to support Friends carrying out missionary and relief work abroad. It was remarked that her address at 50 Higher Drive, Purley, must have been well known all over the world!

We have several collections of her papers in the Library including at TEMP MSS 511 and TEMP MSS 673.

Featured is an example from her papers of her support for Daniel and Emily Oliver who went to Brummana, Syria (later part of Lebanon) in 1895 to run the Friends Mission School there. During the First World War, after the Turkish invasion, they witnessed the orphan crisis there and set up an orphanage, pictured here in 1936, in a photo sent to Lucy Backhouse.

Lucy Backhouse ii(Daniel and Emily Oliver Orphanage, Ras-el-Metn, Syria, 1936, Library ref: TEMP MSS 511/2/1)

Reverse of photo: “With good wishes and greetings from the orphans & staff at Ras-el-Metn, Nov 2 1936”

Lucy Backhouse iii

Lucy Backhouse vii

Lucy Backhouse’s familiar address on letter from Daniel Oliver

Aline Atherton-Smith has an interesting collection of papers TEMP MSS 776 mainly about the Land Settlement movement of the 1920s, which she pioneered in Austria, earning her the title ‘Mother of the Settlements’.

She worked in Austria as Head of the Land Settlement Department of the Friends International Centre in Vienna, after the First World War, attempting to ease the poverty and housing issues there. Many Viennese citizens had fled the city for the surrounding areas and set up makeshift homes there. The settlement movement sought to instil co-operative organisation into these settlements and foster good community relations.

Atherton-Smith would seek to export this model to try to solve poverty and housing issues in England and elsewhere in the world. The letters in her collection show great warmth and gratitude from the Settlers towards Atherton-Smith, and a report from the FIC reads: “Her promotion of interpolitical co-operation had been of tremendous value to the movement.” It was also work that would bring her under the watch of the Nazis in the next decade. Her collection includes photographs of the building of the settlements in Austria, as well as correspondence about the movement.

Aline Atherton v

“Siedlergruppe” Group of settlers, Austria, 1920s (Library ref: TEMP MSS 776/2/7)

Aline Atherton vi

“Hausergruppe. Objekt III, IV, V” Settlement houses (Library ref: TEMP MSS 776/2/7)

Mauricle Hussey’s papers TEMP MSS 544 are a colourful collection of drawings and sketches as well as family photographs and photos of farflung places. Hussey was an artist and one of her lively sketches is featured below. She was active on committees including Meeting for Sufferings and Friends Service Council, and seems to have travelled widely, writing articles on her travels in Russia, where in the 1950s she was one of the first British women to travel to Irkutsk. Below are some negatives of photos in Russia.

Maurice Hussey i

Drawing by Mauricle Hussey (Library ref: TEMP MSS 544/3/1)


Maurice Hussey iii

Maurice Hussey iv

Negatives of Russia, c.1950s (Library ref: TEMP MSS 544/3/5)



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