War and social order

Reimagining a True Social Order is a new AHRC funded website exploring the historic background and contemporary significance of the Eight Foundations of a True Social Order, first agreed by London Yearly Meeting in 1918. Inspired by the richness of the new resource (produced by academics at Leeds, in collaboration with Quakers in Britain, Woodbrooke and others), this blogpost aims to highlight some of the Library material which relate to the origins and development of the Eight Foundations.

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Display of material for Yearly Meeting 2016 special interest group on the 8 Foundations

The war of 1914–18 made Friends more vividly aware of the close connection between war and social order. Many progressive social thinkers at the time blamed the failings of capitalism for the descent into war, and saw the masses caught up in fighting for their countries as pawns in the games of empire led by politicians, royalty and wealthy businessmen.

Nine months after the outbreak of war, London Yearly Meeting was inspired by the words of the 18th century Quaker John Woolman:  May we look upon our treasures, the furniture of our houses, and our garments, and try whether the seeds of war have nourishment in these our possessions (A Word of remembrance and caution to the rich, republished by the Fabian Society in 1897).

British Friends established a War & Social Order Committee in 1915 to look into all issues surrounding social inequality and the social conditions that make war possible. The Committee presented their findings to Yearly Meeting in 1918, leading to the adoption of eight ‘Foundations of a true social order’, ideals still included in Quaker faith and practice today(http://qfp.quaker.org.uk/passage/23-16/).

The War & Social Order Committee (WSOC) would later become the Industrial & Social Order Council (ISOC) which existed until 1962.

The most obvious starting place for anyone interested in finding out more, is the papers of these two committees.

For the War & Social Order Committee, 1915-1928, we hold the minutes of the main committee and the sub-committees, as well as conference minutes. For a full description of the records, go to our online catalogue entry: http://quaker.adlibhosting.com/Details/archive/110010972

For the Industrial & Social Order Council, 1928-1962, we hold similar records and also two scrapbooks of photographs and pamphlets. For a full description, go to our online catalogue entry: http://quaker.adlibhosting.com/Details/archive/110010392

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‘Those much discussed Eight Points’, Industrial and Social Order Council scrapbook, 1955-1956′, Library reference ISOC/6/1

However for those wanting to dig even deeper, there are other collections which are worth a look.

Papers from committees and people which shed a light on their wartime activities are important for getting a feel for how the war was influencing Quakers and in many cases leading them to new and more radical positions.

WSOC member Hubert Peet was already a Socialist before war broke out (acting as editor of The Ploughshare, journal of the Socialist Quaker Society), but as secretary of the wartime Friends Service Committee, he would have had contact with a large variety of young men from diverse backgrounds which may have also shaped his political and social views. His 1916 correspondence forms part of the Service Committee records here on the catalogue: http://quaker.adlibhosting.com/Details/archive/110010918.

Some of the members of the War & Social Order committee were absolutist conscientious objectors, and when reading the letters and diaries of COs in our collections you can see how this experience led them to mix with other conscientious objectors through the No-Conscription Fellowship, and while imprisoned alongside these men. Often other COs objected on political grounds, and held strong socialist views. To find out more about this read our earlier blogpost on COs in prison https://quakerstrongrooms.org/2014/04/30/library-resources-for-researching-world-war-i-prison-experiences-of-conscientious-objectors/

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Page from clandestine CO prison newspaper featuring cartoon with socialist and pacifist themes, page 24, Winchester Whisperer, Library reference: Vol S 77

We also hold a variety of publications and collections from other members of the committee (http://www.quakersocialorder.org.uk/people/) which you can find by searching their names on our catalogue.

Notable collections include:

Maurice L. Rowntree papers (Library reference: TEMP MSS 480)

Rowntree had also served time in prison as a conscientious objector during World War I and his letters and notebooks written in prison show the huge impact this had on him especially with regards to prison conditions and rehabilitation. He went on to publish several works on war and social order, and this collection includes extensive research notes for his writing. The collection also includes research notes written on areas of industry – it seems Rowntree went ‘undercover’ and obtained jobs for periods in labouring work in order to get a better understanding of working conditions.  He also documents adult education projects and clubs for the unemployed in working class areas.

Joan Mary Fry papers                            (Library references: TEMP MSS 66; TEMP MSS 909 etc.)

Joan Mary Fry was a wealthy Quaker, daughter of a Judge, and sister of Roger Fry, the art critic, and Bloomsbury Group member.

She had served as a prison chaplain in World War One, before joining the relief effort in Germany after the war. Among other tasks on the War & Social Order Committee, she headed up the allotment sub-committee, promoting allotment work for the poor.

She published articles and books on issues to do with pacifism and social order, particularly focussing on unemployment, but also on religious and pastoral topics. Find out more about her publications by searching our online catalogue (see also our recent blogpost on Fry and others).

John Turner Walton Newbold papers                                       (Library reference TEMP MSS 225)

Walton Newbold was a journalist and politician, who became the first Communist MP in Britain. He was much influenced by his Irish Quaker father and espoused Quaker beliefs, although in later life he was drawn to Catholicism.

He was a pacifist and campaigned for the No-Conscription Fellowship through World War I although was ruled out of having to contest conscription on medical grounds.

His politics were complex and he moved from the Independent Labour Party to the radical Left, joining the new Communist Party of Great Britain in 1921. After a period of intense representation on domestic and international issues, which led to a suspension from parliament in 1923, he resigned from the Party in 1924 and renewed his allegiance to Labour.

We hold a collection of letters of Newbold to contemporaries such as Hubert Peet.

These collections provide further historical insight into the thinking behind the Eight Foundations, adding to the rich resources on the new Reimagining a True Social Order website.

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Good cheer!

What’s going to be in your Christmas stocking? Something good, we hope! For our final blogpost of 2016 we want to celebrate some of the “gifts” you’ve shared  over the past twelve months. There have been some heartening acts of generosity – both regular and surprising. We have many reasons to be thankful!

Every fortnight a dedicated group of NADFAS volunteers gather in the Library reading room to de-staple and re-sew our modern pamphlets a Herculean task they’ve been working on for over six years. Over the autumn we’ve also had the help of a student conservator, who’s been treating some more challenging items. Through this painstaking and unglamorous work a great many rare late 19th and 20th century pamphlets are being protected from the damaging effects of rust on paper.

A small team of other volunteers offer their skill and time regularly too. Between them, they carry out basic paper repairs in-house, check large collections of donated material, and provide invaluable support to the retrospective cataloguing project. Thank you, volunteers, for your time, good will and constancy!

NADFAS team at work

Without a paid ministry, Quaker meetings run on the voluntary service of their members, who may undertake a range of roles. One of these is the role of “meeting librarian” (meetings are encouraged to maintain libraries for the use of Friends and attenders, as an aid to the life of the meeting and outreach). Earlier this year Quaker Life Network formed a new “Quaker Meeting Librarians Cluster” (inspired by an earlier discussion group set up and run for over a decade by Nic Wright, former librarian at Bolton Meeting), intended as a forum for sharing experience, discussing books and swapping tips.

Not long after the cluster was established, a reader came to us looking for a loan copy of The Communion of life, Joan Mary Fry’s 1910 Swarthmore lecture. As a shot in the dark, we emailed the cluster. Suddenly, and quite unexpectedly, there were messages from meeting librarians all over the country generously offering to track down and lend the book from their own collections. The reader was delighted, and so were we. And a bit awed. Meeting librarians are amazing: you clearly have a passion for sharing!

A catalogue of the books, belonging to the Friends of Leeds Particular Meeting (Leeds: Printed by J. Binns, 1794)

 

We’ve blogged before about how much we and our other users owe to the generosity of researchers who share their own work with the Library. A large proportion of new accessions – scholarly historical works, biographies, articles, novels, local history and more are presented to the Library by their authors, and this year was no exception.  Topics included politics, theology, the role of women, radicalism, peace, voluntary service, and individual people and places, across four centuries, reflecting the broad compass of our collections. Here’s a random selection of some of the 2016 accessions:

 

To ensure the survival of our collections for the future, professional conservation treatment is sometimes needed, funded by our BeFriend a Book scheme. So we were delighted when the recent blogpost about our student conservator’s project prompted one reader to make a generous donation to the fund. Thanks to everyone who has donated, whether it’s a lot or a little, for making this work possible!

Among items conserved this year were 16 tract volumes – volumes of separately published works collected and bound up together (mainly 17th-18th century). Their significance as physical objects is enhanced by their associations with places and people, so any trace of former ownership (inscriptions, marginal notes, bookplates, etc.) is meticulously preserved. Here are tract volumes 294, 326 and 517, three of those conserved in 2016 with noteworthy provenance:

And those are just a few of the kindnesses we’ve witnessed in 2016. Thank you all, friends, whether you’ve shared your time, your money, your own research, or – not least – your good will.

Very warm wishes to users and friends of the Library for Christmas and the new year!

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Preserving pamphlets: our student conservator talks about her work in the Library

We’re lucky to have Beth Franklin, a student conservator, volunteering at the Library this autumn. She’s working on-site to conserve some of the Library’s nineteenth and twentieth century pamphlets. We asked Beth about the kind of work she’s doing here and what drew her to a career in conservation.

 

Carrying out tape removal In the studio at Camberwell

Carrying out tape removal In the studio at Camberwell

How did you come to volunteer at the Library of the Society of Friends?

Beth: I’m a second year student on the Conservation M.A. course (Books and Archival Materials pathway) at Camberwell College of Arts, University of the Arts London, finishing in 2017, and looking for every opportunity to practice my skills. My undergraduate degree was in Theology and Biblical Studies, so I was interested in Quakerism. When my mentor Ian Watson, a conservator at Lambeth Palace Library, suggested a placement here I jumped at it. After my two week placement last spring I offered to come back one day a week through the autumn.

 

What did you do here during your first two week placement in the spring?

Beth: I broke up books! I had to dis-bind a set of nineteenth century pamphlet volumes. Like all conservation work, it required a steady hand and great care, and it was actually useful for understanding the structure of bound volumes, complementing what I had learned during my course so far.

 

You’re volunteering at the Library throughout the autumn. What kind of work are you doing now?

Beth: I’m working on the pamphlet material that the Library’s NADFAS team of volunteers have identified as needing more extensive work than they can do. I spent a day working with Ian at Sussex Conservation Consortium’s studio, and he helped decide what treatments were appropriate for me to carry out on site in the Library at Friends House, one day a week. Most of my work is repairing paper tears, reattaching covers and removing damaging staples – ones that are hard to get at because they are covered by the pamphlet bindings.

 

Beth’s tool roll

Beth’s tool roll – portable essentials

How does this fit in with the M.A. course you’re taking at Camberwell?

Beth: It’s useful experience. It gives me the opportunity to practise what I’ve learned in a classroom environment in a real life library and archive setting.

 

How long does each pamphlet take to treat?

Beth: It all depends – how long is a piece of string? A simple pamphlet might take ten minutes for careful staple removal and sewing; applying paper hinges to covers using wheat starch paste is longer, with drying time about an hour. I make up the wheat starch paste each time I visit the Library – it goes off in a week and smells horrible! One pamphlet that took a lot of time to treat was published in 2006 (Grow up or blow up, by Charlotte Waterlow). It was a thick pamphlet – 60 pages – with staples all the way through. I had to remove the staples, sew the pages together using the existing staple holes and re-attach the cover with Japanese paper hinges. Taking out the staples led to some loss of spine tape, which needed to be remedied with careful toning.

 

Wheat starch paste, made up for each visit to the Library

Wheat starch paste, made up for each visit to the Library

What’s the most challenging item you’ve treated so far this term?

Beth: A 19th century pamphlet about a visit to Ireland by James Hack Tuke (Irish distress and its remedies. The land question. A visit to Donegal and Connaught in the spring of 1880, Box 77/19). This was a well-used pamphlet whose covers had fallen off. It had been sewn but the stitching had gone, and I had to re-stitch the sections and sew them onto two cords, on site, with only the basic equipment I had here. My mentor Ian advised that it was do-able, and I’m pretty pleased with the result, considering I didn’t have the use of a sewing frame. I made a new paper cover, with a Japanese paper spine and I also had to remove some sticky tape (the bane of conservators).

 

Could you tell us about some of the other conservation work you’ve been doing?

Beth: I worked for a month over the summer at Lambeth Place Library, repairing three leather bindings by re-attaching boards and making a new leather spine – my first opportunity to work with leather bindings in a real life library context.

At the moment I’m also volunteering at the V&A Museum once a week, in their Blythe House store, making book wraps – bespoke enclosures for leather bound books with “red rot”, designed to protect neighbouring volumes (and users!) from the red flaking dust that comes off the volumes.

Enclosure for a book with "red rot"

Enclosure for a book with “red rot”

What drew you to book and archive conservation in the first place?

As an undergraduate I used university special collections for my research at Liverpool Hope University, and I loved it. I ended up volunteering there, and did some basic repair work, which got my interest going. In the future I’d like to work as a conservator in a religious library or archive.

 

Finally, what’s your favourite piece of conservation equipment?

My Teflon bone folder. A bone folder is the conservator’s best friend! But I also love my Japanese bristle brush with bamboo handle, which is beautiful as well as useful.

 

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Friends as missionaries: contemporary reports, newsletters and magazines

This blog post introduces some of the periodicals that document British Quakers’ activity in the foreign mission field from the second half of the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Mission work was reported and promoted through annual reports, newsletters, and circulars. These are today an invaluable resource for anyone wanting to find out more about the work and the individuals involved.

As the nineteenth century progressed, Friends became more interested in evangelisation both at home and abroad. To this end in 1868 British Friends founded the Friends Foreign Mission Association (FFMA). The FFMA started out with 20 missionaries in 1868, reaching a peak by 1917 with 120 missionaries. By the time it became Friends Service Council in 1926, a total of 345 people had served with the organisation. Friends were active in China, India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Pemba and the Middle East. This work was not without its controversies with the Society of Friends, as described by John Ormerod Greenwood in Vines on the mountain (volume 2 of his Quaker encounters trilogy, York, 1977).

The Library holds annual reports of the FFMA for its entire history (1868-1926). These often feature photographs from the mission field (including mission buildings and British and local missionaries).

FFMA annual report 1881

FFMA annual report 1881, with map showing Hoshangabad District

Our missions (its magazine published 1894-1917) looked at the work of Friends Foreign Mission Association, featuring reports on specific mission projects and discussion about mission work. It is important to bear in mind, as Greenwood points out in Vines on the mountain, that the accounts in these periodicals deliberately downplayed the controversies, difficulties and hardships of missionary life.

Photograph of FFMA workers in Madagascar, from Our Missions, no. 144 (December 1905)

Photograph of FFMA workers in Madagascar, from Our missions, no. 144 (December 1905)

In 1911 foreign mission work began to be reported in another periodical, The Quaker at home and abroad.  In 1913 it became Workers at home and abroad, and absorbed FFMA’s Our missions in 1918. In 1922 Workers at home and abroad changed its title again to become The Wayfarer (which continues today as Quaker voices). The Wayfarer continued to cover the work of the FFMA and later Friends Service Council. FFMA’s work also got coverage in the Monthly record, which started out as a periodical covering “home and foreign missions, first-day schools, temperance and other other Christian work in the Society of Friends”, and later focused more extensively on adult schools, illustrating the overlap between “home” mission work and work abroad.

The Friends Foreign Mission Association and its successor, Friends Service Council, published a periodical for children called Here & there (1920-1942). Attractively illustrated with photographs, stories and activities, many of its articles were aimed at giving children an idea of daily life and customs in the countries where the FFMA worked.

Here and there (June 1922)

Here and there (June 1922)

Substantial projects run by or assisted by the Friends Foreign Mission Association, such as the Medical Mission at Antananarivo (Madagascar) and the Friends’ Syrian Mission run by Theophilus Waldmeier, often produced their own annual reports, which provide valuable insight into the work.

Friends Syrian Mission report 1895

Friends Syrian Mission report 1895

The Library also holds reports of projects independent of the FFMA, such as the Friends Mission in Brittany run by Charles D. Terrell , the Friends Armenian Mission in Istanbul established by Ann Mary Burgess, and Henry Gurney’s refuge in Tangiers.

The Missionary Helpers Union founded in 1882 helped support the work of the FFMA. Among publications relating to the Missionary Helpers Union are annual reports for 1884-1911. Some of its publications were aimed at children and young adults, and some focused on work in specific countries (China, Syria, and India).

As a result of the First World War, Friends became increasingly concerned with issues around international conciliation and peace building. The experience of Quaker organisations in providing relief during and after the war (and the formation of the American Friends Service Committee) also had an influence on this change in direction. The Council for International Service was formed in 1919 to support projects promoting international understanding, such as the Quaker International Centres that flourished in the interwar period. The Library holds annual reports of the Council for International Service between 1919 and 1927 as it worked alongside the FFMA. The two bodies merged to form the new Friends Service Council in 1927. Quaker world service, the new monthly published by Friends Service Council between 1927 and 1934, reflects this change in focus.

Quaker World Service (September 1932)

Quaker world service (September 1932) – title and contents illustrate the focus

Last, but not least, it is also worth noting that the Quaker weekly magazine The Friend also included current news of Friends’ foreign mission work, particularly letters from those engaged in the field.

Selected periodicals on Friends’ foreign missions

Friends Foreign Mission Association. Annual reports (London: Friends Foreign Mission Association, 1868-1926)

Monthly record (Birmingham: White & Pike, 1869-1891)

Missionary Helpers Union. Annual reports (Leominster: Orphans Printing Press, 1884-1911)

 Our missions: a magazine of foreign mission work carried on by Friends (London: West, Newman and Co., 1894-1917)

The Quaker at home and abroad (London: FFMA; Friends Home Mission & Extension Committee, 1911-1913)

Workers at home and abroad (London: FFMA, 1913-1921)

Council for International Service. Annual reports (London: Friends Council for International Service, 1919-1927)

The Wayfarer (London: Friends Home Mission & Extension Committee; Friends Service Council, 1922-1964)

Here & there (London: FFMA; Friends Service Council, 1920-1942)

Quaker world service (London: Friends Service Council, 1927-1934)

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Yearly Meeting 2016

Since the 17th century Friends have held an annual assembly known as Yearly Meeting. It’s changed a lot since its early days. Meetings regularly take place away from London, and what was once known as “London Yearly Meeting” has changed its name to “Britain Yearly Meeting”, a more accurate and inclusive expression of its identity. This year it will be taking place at Friends House, in London, 27-30 May, and the building will soon be buzzing with huge numbers of Quakers.

If you’re attending Yearly Meeting this year, whether for the first time or as a seasoned attender, we hope you’ll look in on the Library in whatever time you have spare between sessions, special interest meetings and lectures.

Detail of La Panne by Donald Wood

Detail of La Panne by Donald Wood (1916) (Library reference F183) – now on display on the first floor of Friends House

We’ve mounted two new displays on the topic of World War I conscientious objection, to mark the centenary of introduction of conscription in 1916. Besides the display in the reading room cabinet, there’s a further display on the first floor – bringing our collections out into other parts of the building with more passing traffic. Notice the newly conserved paintings by Donald Wood, showing Friends Ambulance Unit at La Panne, France, hanging alongside the display panels. And we’ll be putting more items from our collections out on display daily in the reading room, for all to see over the four days of Yearly Meeting, including documents and artefacts to illustrate the new Friends House garden timeline, and material relating to the “foundations of a social order” (see below).

Some of the special interest meetings over YM will be taking place in the Library reading room. Sing_in_the_spirit_9780948413155The Saturday lunch break will see a discussion on the Foundations of a true social order, facilitated by Rachel Muers and Rhiannon Grant:  they’ll begin with the story of the “foundations”, deliberated on by Friends a century ago, as the starting point for reflection on contemporary Quaker social testimony.  Reading Quaker faith & practice is the theme of a meeting in the Library during the Sunday mid-day interval – an opportunity to share what you may have learned or done as part of “Reading Quaker faith and practice” project, and get creative ideas for groups or personal reflection, as well as an update of the work of the Revision Preparation Group. But it’s the last group gathering in the reading room that promises to make the most noise – the Leaveners will be leading group singing in the Library from 7 to 8 on Sunday evening. We think this must be a first!

Annual lectures are a regular feature of the Yearly Meeting weekend. Sometimes their format is far from what you might expect – the Salter lecture this year is to be a performance of Red flag over Bermondsey: the Ada Salter story, written and performed by Lynne Morris (Friday, 12.30-14.00 in the Large Meeting House). Richard C. Allen’s Friends Historical Society Presidential Lecture on the origins of the London Peace Society, one of the earliest peace societies, sounds fascinating (“Providing a moral compass for British people: the work of Joseph Tregelles Price, Evan Rees and the Herald of Peace”, Sunday 17.30-18.30 in the Small Meeting House). And of course the Swarthmore lecture – this year’s lecture by Cécile Nyiramana and Esther Mombo is on Quaker peace building in East Africa. There are plans for it to be live-streamed (more information here).

It’s worth noting that Swarthmore lectures for the last 50 years are available for loan from the Library, as well as reference copies of the entire run; we can also supply spares of out of print lectures to meeting libraries or reading groups (contact us for more information). But a lecture’s live delivery is often especially enthralling, so it’s great to know that recordings of several Swarthmore lectures are available for free download from Woodbrooke.

Swarthmore lectures

Swarthmore lectures

Check out the Yearly Meeting timetable for full details of events. Yearly Meeting documents and practical information are also available online.

If you’re attending Yearly Meeting and planning to visit the Library to use the collections, there will be an opportunity for quiet research on Friday morning and Monday (we’ll be closed to the general public, but open for YM attenders). Do let us know in advance if you want to request material, so we can ensure it’s ready for your visit. Otherwise, please drop in at any time over the four days to look at the exhibits, browse the magazines and newsletters, read a book, attend a special interest group, or just say hello. We’re looking forward to seeing you all!

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Celebrating more collections information online

Every archive is faced with the problem of growing backlogs of material waiting to be added to their online catalogues and made accessible for users. It is a skilled and time consuming task to update old catalogue entries in paper format to digital ones with modern standards. We were lucky enough to be able to secure funding for a project to update catalogue entries for a large backlog of manuscript collections and add to our online catalogue.

Over the course of 15 months, our project cataloguer Jane Kirby, created top level catalogue entries for around 600 collections. This has opened up these collections to a wider public and we started noticing the impact straight away in the reading room – with collections being ordered up that had rarely been looked at by readers – and even some new discoveries for staff!

The project faced various hurdles: often older collections had scant accession paperwork and needed extra research into their provenance. Some of these mysteries remain unsolved….Other collections needed extensive repacking and cleaning, or had to be earmarked for professional conservation work. We chose to focus on top level entries only, with a basic overview of each collection, as we wanted to get as much of the backlog onto the online catalogue as possible. For larger collections we will need to do further work on expanding their catalogues so that people can find the records they need.

There are all sorts of collections within the manuscripts, including collections from organisations that were not centrally managed by the Yearly Meeting, but that are closely linked with Quakers, such as Friends Ambulance Unit, Friends Temperance Union, and Central Board of Conscientious Objectors.

There are also collections of personal papers of notable Quakers, many of whom carried out work under the auspices of the central organisation, or were closely linked with the Society and wished to leave their papers to the Library. These papers give a complementary personal insight and emotional resonance to the official archives, which tell the story of Quaker work often from a purely administrative perspective.

We have highlighted three interesting collections of personal papers that show the personalities of the people behind the political and social movements and issues interesting Friends in the 20th century.

Lucy Backhouse was an active Friend who sat on many committees, including Friends Service Council, Friends Committee for Refugees and Aliens, Armenia Committee as well as Meeting for Sufferings. Her obituary in The Friend, the weekly Quaker magazine, highlights that one of her strengths was her extensive letter writing to support Friends carrying out missionary and relief work abroad. It was remarked that her address at 50 Higher Drive, Purley, must have been well known all over the world!

We have several collections of her papers in the Library including at TEMP MSS 511 and TEMP MSS 673.

Featured is an example from her papers of her support for Daniel and Emily Oliver who went to Brummana, Syria (later part of Lebanon) in 1895 to run the Friends Mission School there. During the First World War, after the Turkish invasion, they witnessed the orphan crisis there and set up an orphanage, pictured here in 1936, in a photo sent to Lucy Backhouse.

Lucy Backhouse ii(Daniel and Emily Oliver Orphanage, Ras-el-Metn, Syria, 1936, Library ref: TEMP MSS 511/2/1)

Reverse of photo: “With good wishes and greetings from the orphans & staff at Ras-el-Metn, Nov 2 1936”

Lucy Backhouse iii

Lucy Backhouse vii

Lucy Backhouse’s familiar address on letter from Daniel Oliver

Aline Atherton-Smith has an interesting collection of papers TEMP MSS 776 mainly about the Land Settlement movement of the 1920s, which she pioneered in Austria, earning her the title ‘Mother of the Settlements’.

She worked in Austria as Head of the Land Settlement Department of the Friends International Centre in Vienna, after the First World War, attempting to ease the poverty and housing issues there. Many Viennese citizens had fled the city for the surrounding areas and set up makeshift homes there. The settlement movement sought to instil co-operative organisation into these settlements and foster good community relations.

Atherton-Smith would seek to export this model to try to solve poverty and housing issues in England and elsewhere in the world. The letters in her collection show great warmth and gratitude from the Settlers towards Atherton-Smith, and a report from the FIC reads: “Her promotion of interpolitical co-operation had been of tremendous value to the movement.” It was also work that would bring her under the watch of the Nazis in the next decade. Her collection includes photographs of the building of the settlements in Austria, as well as correspondence about the movement.

Aline Atherton v

“Siedlergruppe” Group of settlers, Austria, 1920s (Library ref: TEMP MSS 776/2/7)

Aline Atherton vi

“Hausergruppe. Objekt III, IV, V” Settlement houses (Library ref: TEMP MSS 776/2/7)

Mauricle Hussey’s papers TEMP MSS 544 are a colourful collection of drawings and sketches as well as family photographs and photos of farflung places. Hussey was an artist and one of her lively sketches is featured below. She was active on committees including Meeting for Sufferings and Friends Service Council, and seems to have travelled widely, writing articles on her travels in Russia, where in the 1950s she was one of the first British women to travel to Irkutsk. Below are some negatives of photos in Russia.

Maurice Hussey i

Drawing by Mauricle Hussey (Library ref: TEMP MSS 544/3/1)

 

Maurice Hussey iii

Maurice Hussey iv

Negatives of Russia, c.1950s (Library ref: TEMP MSS 544/3/5)

 

 

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Three remarkable women of the twentieth century: Joan Mary Fry, Elizabeth Fox Howard and Francesca Wilson

For Women’s History Month, we look at the lives of three remarkable women of the 20th  century – Joan Mary Fry, Elizabeth Fox Howard and Francesca Wilson. Each of them in their own way responded to the challenges of world war, testified to their belief in international friendship and worked to relieve suffering.

Joan Mary Fry (1862-1955) is probably the most well-known of the three (you may remember her face on the “Britons of distinction” postage stamp). She was one of a large family with a strong interest in questions of political justice, several of whom went on to devote their life to public service (her sister Margery was a penal reformer, and principal of Somerville College, Oxford; another, Ruth, was a prominent peace campaigner).

Joan Mary Fry

Joan Mary Fry (1862-1955) (Library ref. F91)

 

In her Swarthmore Lecture (1910) Joan Mary Fry spoke of the way that spirit and action are not separate in Quakerism, saying that “Quakerism is nothing unless it be … a practical showing that the spiritual and material spheres are not divided… the whole of life is sacramental and incarnational”. Her own life demonstrated her belief in that of God in all people, and the importance of acting on our beliefs.

During World War I she was a prison chaplain, visiting conscientious objectors in prison, and attending military tribunals and courts martial to support them. After the war she travelled to Germany to investigate famine and help organise food relief programmes. You can read about the work in her book In downcast Germany 1919-1933 (1945), and in the journal letters she sent back from Germany between 1919 and 1933, as well as other unpublished papers.

In the 1920s, as unemployment soared in Britain, Joan Mary Fry became deeply involved in work to alleviate distress in mining communities, including self-help schemes and allotment projects. She acted as Clerk of the Friends Allotments Committee from 1931 to 1951, and wrote about the work in Friends lend a hand in alleviating unemployment: the story of a social experiment extending over 20 years, 1926-1946 (1947).

Allotments for the unemployed: what an allotment can give you!

Friends Allotments Committee poster. Allotments for the unemployed: what an allotment can give you! (Library ref. PO Allot. Com. 4)

 

Elizabeth Fox Howard (1873-1957) was not brought up as a Quaker, though she had Quaker family connections. She joined the Society of Friends as an adult in 1903 and was soon recognised as one of the Quaker leaders of her generation. She attended the Scarborough Conference of 1905, and travelled to visit American Friends in 1912.

Like Joan Mary Fry, she acted as a Quaker chaplain during World War I, visiting absolutist conscientious objectors who were imprisoned for their refusal to support militarism in any way. And, also like her, she formed strong links with Germany and Germans after the war, visiting the country again and again, returning after the Second World War to work with displaced persons in her seventies. As she wrote in Barriers down, the second of her two books on work with Germany, “for twenty-five years my connections with Germany had been closer than with any other country except my own, and I had spent months each year on some form or other of relief or reconciliation work, leaving Frankfurt, indeed, only a couple of weeks before war broke out in 1939”. When English Friends had opened the Quaker rest home at Falkenstein and then at Bad Pyrmont in 1933, to care for victims of the Nazi regime, Elizabeth Fox Howard served as one of the hosts. During the six years the rest home was in operation, it offered recuperation to some 800 people, Jews, Catholics, Lutherans, Communists and other victims of the regime.

Bad Pyrmont edit2

Quaker House at Bad Pyrmont (Library ref. Album 7)

 

Extract from Elizabeth Fox Howard's account of her arrest in Germany 1935

Elizabeth Fox Howard’s account of her arrest in Germany 1935 – extract (Library ref. Temp MSS 83/3)

Elizabeth Fox Howard also worked tirelessly in her own local community and her international interests were wide. Gandhi visited her home in Buckhurst Hill during his 1931 visit to London, for a quiet day away from public affairs. She published many articles, poetry, books about relief work in Germany, and memoirs, and continued to make friendships with people of all nations throughout her life.

Elizabeth Fox Howard, Midstream (1945)

Elizabeth Fox Howard, Midstream: a record of many years (1945)

 

 

Francesca Wilson (1888-1981) was born in Newcastle upon Tyne, some years later than Joan Mary Fry and Elizabeth Fox Howard. Unlike them she went to university (Newnham College, Cambridge), to study history. With her interest in travel and languages she was led into relief work with Friends in 1916, and worked with French refugees at Samoens, later becoming involved in caring for wounded Serbian troops in Corsica and North Africa under the auspices of the Serbian Relief Fund. After some time working as Hilda Clark’s interpreter in Vienna where Quakers and Save the Children Fund were organising a child feeding programme, she went in 1922 to work for famine relief in the Buzuluk region of Russia.

Francesca Wilson

Francesca Wilson (Library ref. MSS 1006/8)

As a teacher in Birmingham in the 1930s she obtained leave to go to Spain during the Spanish Civil War, visiting three times to organise housing and medical care for children. During the Second World War and afterwards she worked with Spanish refugees in the south of France, with Polish refugees in Hungary, and after the war worked with displaced persons in Germany under UNRRA. Her home was open to all sorts of lodgers, including refugees from Nazi Germany and Russia, and she adopted several young people, providing them with a home and opportunity for education.

She was a prolific writer, including contributions to The Friend and the Manchester Guardian, made radio broadcasts and television appearances. She wrote a best-selling account of her experiences, In the margins of chaos (1944).

Francesca WIlson, In the margins of chaos

Francesca Wilson, In the margins of chaos: recollections of relief work in and between three wars (1944)

 

The Library holds books, articles and unpublished papers of all three women, as well as the archives of the Quaker organisations for which they worked.

 

 

Further reading

Joan Mary Fry

 Published sources

Oldfield, Sybil, ‘Joan Mary Fry (1862–1955), relief worker and social reformer’ in Oxford Dictionary of national biography (2004) http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38522  (log in using most local public library cards)

Fawell, Ruth, Joan Mary Fry (Friends Home Service Committee, 1959)

Moore, Katharine, Cordial relations: the maiden aunt in fact and fiction (Heinemann, 1966. Chapter 19 includes transcript of interview with Pamela Diamand about her childhood and her aunts, Joan, Isabel & Margery Fry.

Diamand, Pamela, Joan as she was to us children (Undated typescript. Library reference: Box L27/25)

Johnson, Dale A., ‘From pilgrimage to discipleship: Quaker women’s ministries in nineteenth century England’ in Quaker history, Vol.91, no.2 (Fall 2002), p.18-32

Morgan, Nigel, ‘Joan Mary Fry and The Communion of Life’ in The Friend (14 December 2010) https://thefriend.org/article/joan-mary-fry-and-the-communion-of-life

Obituary in The Friend (2 December 1955)

Manuscripts and archives

Joan Mary Fry Journal letters from Germany and America (Library reference: Temp MSS 66)

Joan Mary Fry Papers, concerning work in Germany 1919-1954 (Library reference: Temp MSS 87/7)

Joan Mary Fry Papers, including report on a visit to German prisons (Library reference: Temp MSS 99/2)

Allotments Committee records (http://quaker.adlibhosting.com/Details/archive/110006641)

 

Elizabeth Fox Howard

Published sources

Howard, Elizabeth Fox, Upstream: a family scrapbook (privately published, 1944)

Howard, Elizabeth Fox, Midstream: a record of many years (privately published, 1945)

Howard, Elizabeth Fox, Downstream: records of several generations (privately published, 1955)

Haseldine-Jones, Lynn, ‘Elizabeth Fox Howard’ in Loughton and District Historical Society Newsletter (Jan-Feb 2013) http://www.theydon.org.uk/lhs/Downloads/LHS%20News%20196.pdf

Manuscripts and archives

Elizabeth Fox Howard Papers – including World War I relief work, letters written while a prison chaplain at Dartmoor Prison, description of a day spent with Gandhi, journal and letters about her arrest in Germany in 1935 (Library reference: Temp MSS 83)

 

Francesca Wilson

Published sources

Roberts, Siân. ‘Wilson, Francesca Mary (1888–1981), schoolteacher and refugee relief worker’ in Oxford Dictionary of national biography (2013) http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/103379 (log in using most local public library cards)

Wilson, Francesca, In the margins of chaos: recollections of relief work in and between three wars (John Murray, 1944)

Wilson, Francesca, Aftermath: France, Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, 1945 and 1946 (Penguin, 1947)

Horder, June (ed.), Francesca Wilson: a life of service and adventure (privately published, 1993)

Manuscripts and archives

Francesca Wilson Papers – including correspondence, diary extracts, articles and talks (Library reference: MSS 1006)

Friends Emergency & War Victims Relief Committee records of relief missions (Library reference: YM/MfS/FEWVRC/MISSIONS/)

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